Event Details

Administration of Shivaji Maharaj

Administration of Shivaji Maharaj

19 FEB,2022

The Education Society’s,


P. D. Karkhanis College of Arts & Commerce, Ambarnath


‣Introduction
On the day of Phalgun Vadya Tritiya in the shake year 1551, 19 Feb 1630 at the hill fort of Shivneri , Shivaji was born. He was a second son of Shahaji Bhosale and Jijabai He was brought up under the supervision of Jijabai and loyal Brahmin Guru Dadoji Kondev Dadoji Kondev made Shivaji an expert in soilder and an efficient Administrator Shivaji was also influenced religiously by Guru Ramdas
‣Administration
  • Shivaji’s administration was largely influenced by Deccan Administrative practices
  • he teritory over which Shivaji ruled was known as ‘ Swarajya’
  • Shivaji divided his teritory into several provinces
  • These provinces further divided into parganas and villages
  • Shivaji was assisted in his day to day affairs by his council of 8 ministers called Ashtapradhan
  • Each Minister was in charge of department called Ministry

  • ‣Features Of Shivaji’s Administration
  • Shivaji divided his administration into 6 parts
  • Central Administration
  • Provicial Administration
  • Revenue System
  • Chauth or Sardeshmukhi
  • Judicial Administration
  • Army Administration

  • ‣Ashtapradhan - Central Administration

    ashtapradhan

    Peshwa was also called as Prime Minister who looked after the finance and general administration Senapati or Sarnaubat were leading Maratha chiefs Mujumdar an accountant or auditor Wakenavis who look after intelligent post and household affairs

  • Chitnis assists the king in correspondence by letters
  • Dabir helps the king in foreign affairs
  • Nyayadhish was the in charge of justice
  • Panditrao were in charge of charitable grants
  • Except Senapati all others are Brahmin

  • ‣Provincial Administration

    Shivaji divided his kingdom into 4 provinces

  • Each province were under the head called Mujumdar
  • Each province was divided into several districtsand villages called Subhas
  • The chief of the Subhas is called Subhedar
  • Subhedar was assisted by Karkun
  • Village chief is called Deshpande or Patel
  • Like center there was a council of 8 ministers called Prantapati
  • ‣Revenue

    revenue

  • Revenue was assessed after a careful survey and classification of lands based on yields and quality
  • 2/5th of the produced was fixed as the share of the state which was payable in cash or kind Land in every village was measured and the produce was roughly assesed
  • On the basis of assesment , the cultivators were asked to pay 40% of their produce as land revenue
  • The Rayatwari system was introduced in which the revenue was directly collected from the farmers
  • Whenever possible , Shivaji abolished the Jagirdari system
  • Farmers had the option to pay the land revenue in cash or kind
  • The peasnts could pay the revenue in installments
  • ‣Chauth & Sardeshmukhi
  • The accounts of the revenue officers began to be throughly checked
  • In the event of floods and famine, the state offered loans to the peasants
  • Shivaji introduced the collection of two taxes chauth and Sardeshmukhi
  • Chauth was 1/4th of the revenue of the district collected , was a military contribution paid towards off any attack of the Marathas
  • Sardeshmukhi was an additional tax of 10%as the hereditary Sardeshmukhi
  • ‣Judicial Administration
  • The judicial administration was simple
  • The highest court was “ Hazar Majils” or court of king
  • Day to day administration was carried on by Village Panchayats and Village Patel
  • ‣Army Administration
  • Army has 6 divisions cavalry, infantry, camel battalions , elephant battalions, artillery and navy
  • Cavalry divided into Bargirs and Shiledars
  • Bargirs were the soilders who use their horses and weapons of the kingdom
  • For every horse there is one Bargir For 25 Bargirs there is one Havaldar

  • ‣Bargirs
  • For every horse there is one Bargir
  • For 25 Bargirs there is one Havaldar
  • For 5 Havaldars there is one Jumledar
  • For 10 Jumledars there is one Hajari
  • For 5 Hajari there is one Panch Hajari
  • On Panch Hajari there is one Sarnaubat

  • ‣Infantry

    Infantry was made up of foot soilders

  • For 10 soilders there is one Naik
  • For 5 Naiks there is one Havaldar
  • For 3 Havaldars there is one Jumledar
  • For 8 jumledar there is one Hajari
  • For all Hajari there is one Sarnaubat

  • ‣Sindhudurga

    Sindhudurga

    ‣Navy

    Navy

    ‣Frigates

    Frigates

    ‣Naval Force

  • Shivaji was the first Indian King to introduce Navy
  • He had 3 shipyards, hundreds of frigates and many sea forts
  • Shivaji built strong navy around Konkan and Goa coastal line to protect the sea trade
  • Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan, Bhiwandi for navy as well as trade
  • ‣Reforms in the Army
  • Reforms in the army
  • Regular army soilders served in the army for 6 months thereafter they worked in their fields
  • Cash payment soilders were paid in cash
  • Patrotism : Shivaji inspired soilders with patrotism
  • Branding of horses : Shivaji introduced the system of branding the horses and keeping the identification of soilders


  • ‣Administration of Land Division
  • Guerilla warfare was used
  • Muslim soilders were also involved
  • Administration of land division : State , District , Taluka and Village is the division of land
  • ‣Principles of Shivaji’s Administration
  • Swarajya should be given highest priority
  • Government servants should be paid in cash not through grants or jagirs
  • No post in the office , even the highest were to be heriditary
  • All post to be filled in on the basis of merit
  • Revenue collection was to be direct that is to be by the state
  • Ijara system of farming lands was abolished People of all caste were involved All people irrespective of their caste and religon were to have same rights During the war and in the course of raids in the enemy territory , the women, children and religious places were not suffer any harm The finances of the state were to be managed and budgeted

    ‣Shivaji’s Administration & its Relevance with Modern Times
  • Even though Shivaji lived over 300 years ago, his administration is still in practice Ministerial system in Administration is still exists
  • Naval force introduced by Shivaji for trade and protection is still used
  • The very first Shopping Mall in the world is in Raigad only the difference driving force was rode a horse
  • Revenue system still in practice
  • Millitary Administration cavalry, infantry, camel battallions, elephant batallions still exists
  • Judicial system of Administration exists
  • ‣Raigad

    Raigad

    ‣Bazar Peth at Raigad

    Bazar Peth at Raigad

    ‣References
  • Bhamre Jitendra : Marathyacha Etihas
  • Chawala Hitesh ; Shivaji Maharaj and His Management
  • Kulkarni A..R. ; Medieval Maharashtra
  • Kolarkar S. G.; Marathyacha Etihas
  • ShakeelAnwar M.D.; Maratha Administration
  • Shakeel Anwar M.D.; Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj : History , Biography, Administration
  • Sonal ; Salient Features of Maratha Administration
  • Takakhav N.S. ; The Life of Shivaji Maharaj

  • ‣Conclusion
  • Shivaji was the First Indian Ruler in the Medieval age
  • He was a great warrior in the 17th century
  • Even though Shivaji lived over 300 years ago , his administration was quite relevant in Modern times
  • Shivaji with his good administration took Maratha Empire to its Zenith
  • Shivaji Maharaj Ki Jai


    Shivaji Maharaj Ki Jai

    I/C PRINCIPAL - DR. VANDANA N. PURAV